Volume 14 Supplement 1

Proceedings of the International Cancer Imaging Society (ICIS) 14th Annual Teaching Course

Open Access

Locoregional therapy of renal cancer

Cancer Imaging201414(Suppl 1):O20

https://doi.org/10.1186/1470-7330-14-S1-O20

Published: 9 October 2014

This lecture aims to provide an overview of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and insights into this rapidly evolving treatment – image guided thermal ablative (IGA) therapy. RCC is the commonest kidney cancer and the detection of RCC has increased over the past decade. There are over 8000 and 50,000 new cases/year in the UK and USA respectively [1, 2]. The increased detection is due to wider usage of radiology (e.g. ultrasound or computed tomography) and this usually results in the detection of smaller RCC with earlier stage disease [3, 4]. In addition, this is also related to the rise in incidence in the general population as a result of smoking and obesity [57].

The historical classical clinical triad where patients presented with flank pain, abdominal mass and haematuria is now a rarity and nowadays the majority of the incidentally detected RCCs are smaller and at an earlier stage –T1 stage. However, historical data has suggested that 60% of these small incidentally detected tumours will grow gradually over a period of time [8]. Therefore, there remains a clinical risk with adopting a ‘watchful waiting’ approach for younger patients as these tumours may become symptomatic or metastasize [9].

Open radical nephrectomy (RN) was the gold standard treatment for RCC since it was introduced in 1869 and Robson et al had popularized this treatment over the last 50 years [10].Over the past 10 years, laparoscopic RN is becoming the standard of care with better cosmetic results and shorter recovery time [11]. More recently for locally confined (T1 disease) RCC treatment with nephron sparing surgery (NSS) e.g. open/ laparoscopic PN has demonstrated similar oncological durability to that of the gold standard RN [12, 13]. RN is now largely considered an overtreatment for T1a (<4cm) RCC because it is associated with greater nephron loss and earlier onset of chronic kidney disease and also associated with increased cardiovascular events after RN [14, 15].

Therefore, the current consensus is that RCC at stage T1a (<4 cm), should be treated with minimally invasive techniques in order to preserve renal function. Nephron sparing surgery (NSS) with either laparoscopic/open PN is advised whenever it is deemed technically possible [16]. Although, the NSS has similar recurrence free and long term survival outcomes as those with RN, NSS remains technically challenging and associated with significant morbidity even in expert hands [14, 15].

Given the surgical challenges and the quest to preserve renal function, IGA treatment of the smaller RCC with radiofrequency ablation (RFA), cryoablation (CRYO) and microwave (MWA) has evolved rapidly over the last decade. Today, IGA of RCC has proven to be a safe and effective treatment option and good oncological outcome data is emerging for RFA [1722] and CRYO [23, 24]. In the hands of an experienced interventional oncologist, the primary technical success is now approaching >95% for both IGA with RFA and CRYO. As RFA was introduced earlier, the emerging larger RFA series have demonstrated cancer specific survival of 97-100% with a follow up of 61-78 months [1722].

Declarations

Acknowledgements

I would to acknowledge my interventional oncology (IO) team (radiologists-Dr Bobby Bhartia, Dr Jonathan Smith, Dr Simon Burbidge), anaesthetist (Dr Simon Whiteley) and lead ODA (David Brown), lead nurse (Bali Bhambra), lead radiographer (Mike Gallagher) and lead administrative coordinator (Janette Bambrook) and collaborative clinicians and allied healthcare staff at Leeds Teaching Hospital Trust as the success of this programme is very much as a result of effective team working.

Authors’ Affiliations

(1)
Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Institute of Oncology, St. James' University Hospital, Leeds Teaching Hospitals Trust

References

  1. Statistics Of N: Cancer Statistics registrations: Registrations of cancer diagnosed in 2008, England. Volume MB1. Office for National Statistics, National Statistics London; 2010.Google Scholar
  2. Jemal A, Siegel R, Ward E, Hao Y, Xu J, Thun MJ: Cancer statistics, 2009. CA Cancer J Clin 2009,59(4):225–249.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  3. Patard JJ, Rodriguez A, Rioux-Leclercq N, Guille F, Lobel B: Prognostic significance of the mode of detection in renal tumours. BJU Int 2002,90(4):358–363.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  4. Tsui KH, Shvarts O, Smith RB, Figlin RA, deKernion JB, Belldegrun A: Prognostic indicators for renal cell carcinoma: a multivariate analysis of 643 patients using the revised 1997 TNM staging criteria. J Urol 2000,163(4):1090–1095.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  5. Jayson M, Sanders H: Increased incidence of serendipitously discovered renal cell carcinoma. Urology 1998,51(2):203–205.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  6. Hollingsworth JM, Miller DC, Daignault S, Hollenbeck BK: Rising incidence of small renal masses: a need to reassess treatment effect. J Natl Cancer Inst 2006,98(18):1331–1334.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  7. Nguyen MM, Gill IS, Ellison LM: The evolving presentation of renal carcinoma in the United States: trends from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program. J Urol 2006,176(6 Pt 1):2397–2400. discussion 2400PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  8. Kato M, Suzuki T, Suzuki Y, Terasawa Y, Sasano H, Arai Y: Natural history of small renal cell carcinoma: evaluation of growth rate, histological grade, cell proliferation and apoptosis. J Urol 2004,172(3):863–866.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  9. Abouassaly R, Lane BR, Novick AC: Active surveillance of renal masses in elderly patients. J Urol 2008,180(2):505–508. discussion 508–509PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  10. Robson CJ, Churchill BM, Anderson W: The results of radical nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma. J Urol 1969,101(3):297–301.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. NICE: Guidance on Cancer Services. Improving Outcome in Urological Cancers. 2002.Google Scholar
  12. Hemal AK, Kumar A, Kumar R, Wadhwa P, Seth A, Gupta NP: Laparoscopic versus open radical nephrectomy for large renal tumors: a long-term prospective comparison. J Urol 2007,177(3):862–866.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  13. Gill IS, Kavoussi LR, Lane BR, Blute ML, Babineau D, Colombo JR Jr., Frank I, Permpongkosol S, Weight CJ, Kaouk JH, Kattan MW, Novick AC: Comparison of 1,800 laparoscopic and open partial nephrectomies for single renal tumors. J Urol 2007,178(1):41–46.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  14. Huang WC, Elkin EB, Levey AS, Jang TL, Russo P: Partial nephrectomy versus radical nephrectomy in patients with small renal tumors--is there a difference in mortality and cardiovascular outcomes? J Urol 2009,181(1):55–61. discussion 61–52PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  15. Huang WC, Levey AS, Serio AM, Snyder M, Vickers AJ, Raj GV, Scardino PT, Russo P: Chronic kidney disease after nephrectomy in patients with renal cortical tumours: a retrospective cohort study. Lancet Oncol 2006,7(9):735–740.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  16. Ljungberg B, Cowan NC, Hanbury DC, Hora M, Kuczyk MA, Merseburger AS, Patard JJ, Mulders PF, Sinescu IC: EAU guidelines on renal cell carcinoma: the 2010 update. Eur Urol 2010,58(3):398–406.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  17. Levinson AW, Su LM, Agarwal D, Sroka M, Jarrett TW, Kavoussi LR, Solomon SB: Long-term oncological and overall outcomes of percutaneous radio frequency ablation in high risk surgical patients with a solitary small renal mass. J Urol 2008,180(2):499–504. discussion 504PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  18. Ferakis N, Bouropoulos C, Granitsas T, Mylona S, Poulias I: Long-term results after computed-tomography-guided percutaneous radiofrequency ablation for small renal tumors. J Endourol 2010,24(12):1909–1913.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  19. Zagoria RJ, Pettus JA, Rogers M, Werle DM, Childs D, Leyendecker JR: Long-term outcomes after percutaneous radiofrequency ablation for renal cell carcinoma. Urology 2011,77(6):1393–1397.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  20. Olweny EO, Park SK, Tan YK, Best SL, Trimmer C, Cadeddu JA: Radiofrequency ablation versus partial nephrectomy in patients with solitary clinical T1a renal cell carcinoma: comparable oncologic outcomes at a minimum of 5 years of follow-up. Eur Urol 2012,61(6):1156–1161.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  21. Wah TM, Irving HC, Gregory W, Cartledge J, Joyce AD, Selby PJ: Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of renal cell carcinoma (RCC): experience in 200 tumours. BJU Int 2014,113(3):416–428.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  22. Psutka SP, Feldman AS, McDougal WS, McGovern FJ, Mueller P, Gervais DA: Long-term oncologic outcomes after radiofrequency ablation for T1 renal cell carcinoma. Eur Urol 2013,63(3):486–492.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  23. Buy X, Lang H, Garnon J, Sauleau E, Roy C, Gangi A: Percutaneous renal cryoablation: prospective experience treating 120 consecutive tumors. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2013,201(6):1353–1361.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  24. Breen DJ, Bryant TJ, Abbas A, Shepherd B, McGill N, Anderson JA, Lockyer RC, Hayes MC, George SL: Percutaneous cryoablation of renal tumours: outcomes from 171 tumours in 147 patients. BJU Int 2013,112(6):758–765.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar

Copyright

© Wah; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2014

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

Advertisement