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Table 2 Sarcopenia definition, assessment and prevalence

From: CT-assessed sarcopenia is a predictive factor for both long-term and short-term outcomes in gastrointestinal oncology patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis

NoModalityIndexCut-off, MaleCut-off, FemaleMethodPrevalenceReferenceCountryNOS
1CT/L3SMI32.528.6Cut-off from 3-year overall survival16.1%Zheng, Z. 2017China7
2CT/L3SMI3629Cut-off from Iritani et al.3.4%Nishigori, T. 2018Japan7
12.5%Wang, S. 2016China7
12.0%Huang, D. 2015China8
3CT/L3SMI40.834.9Cut-off from Zhuang et al.15.4%Zhang, Y. 2019China7
19.7%Zhang, W. 2018China6
17.5%Nishigori, T. 2018Japan7
19.4%Mao, C. 2018China6
15.5%Lin, J. 2018China5
24.5%Chen, W. 2018China7
28.8%Zhou, C. 2017China7
6.8%Lou, N. 2017China7
37.4%Huang, D. 2017China7
41.5%Zhuang, C. 2016China8
30.1%Huang, D. 2016China7
24.7%Chen, F. 2016China6
4CT/L3SMI43.234.6Cut-off from Sakurai et al.22.0%Nishigori, T. 2018Japan7
25.0%Sakurai, K. 2017Japan8
5CT/L3SMI44.536.5Cut-off from the third quartile cases25.8%Harada, K. 2016Japan6
6CT/L3SMI4533.8Cut-off from the third quartile cases25.7%Takeda, Y. 2018Japan7
7CT/L3SMI47.236.9Cut-off from the median of SMI49.9%Nakashima, Y. 2018Japan8
8CT/L3SMI4931Cut-off from Kim et al.38.5%Park, S. 2018Korea6
9CT/L3SMI49.542.1Cut-off from the third quartile cases25.0%Miyamoto, Y. 2015Japan7
10CT/L3SMI52.438.9Cut-off from Prado et al.14.6%Yang, J. 2019China6
35.7%O’Brien, S. 2018Ireland7
64.4%Nishigori, T. 2018Japan7
7.4%Guinan, E. 2018Ireland4
39.4%Choi, M. 2018Korea7
39.8%Choi, M. 2018Korea6
71.8%Beuran, M. 2018Romania5
83.3%Mayanagi, S. 2017Japan7
23.7%Elliott, J. 2017Ireland6
74.9%Nishigori, T. 2016Japan7
60.2%Malietzis, G. 2016UK7
45.0%Grotenhuis, B. 2016Netherlands8
43.1%Anandavadivelan, P. 2016Swede5
47.7%Reisinger, K. 2015Netherlands6
25.7%Yip, C. 2014UK5
38.9%Lieffers, J. 2012Canada7
2.1%Awad, S. 2012UK4
49.4%Tan, B. 2015UK5
 Sugiyama, K. 2018Japan5
11CT/L3SMI55.438.9Cut-off from Prado et al.70.6%Barret, M. 2014France5
12CT/L3SMI5539Cut-off from Voron et al.57.3%Nipp, R. 2018USA4
38.5%Paireder, M. 2017Austria8
65.0%Tamandl, D. 2016Austria7
13CT/L3SMI43/53 (BMI lower or higher than 25)41Cut-off from Martin et al.27.5%Hopkins, J. 2019Canada7
50.5%van Vugt, J. 2018Netherlands8
52.4%van der Kroft, G. 2018Netherlands6
14.7%Souza, B. 2018Brazil4
32.4%Park, H. 2018Korea6
42.9%Nishigori, T. 2018Japan7
24.3%Mosk, C. 2018Netherlands6
34.5%Mauricio, S. 2018Brazil7
38.0%Kurk, S. 2018Netherlands4
23.4%Palmela, C. 2017Portugal4
28.4%Kudou, K. 2017Japan8
21.3%Black, D. 2017UK7
23.9%Black, D. 2017UK7
40.2%Chemama, S. 2016France6
56.7%Blauwhoff-Buskermolen, S. 2016Netherlands6
56.6%Tegels, J. 2015Netherlands6
27.4%Pedziwiatr, M. 2016Poland7
69.8%Hayashi, N. 2016Japan6
14CT/L3SMI52/54 (BMI lower or higher than 30)38/47 (BMI lower or higher than 30)Cut-off from Caan et al.45.9%Feliciano, E. 2017USA6
15CT/L3SMIz-score below - 0.5 for SMI in different ages6.7%Martin, L. 2018Canada6
16CT/L3TPA538346normal TPA in the lowest sex-specific quartile33.3%Ouchi, A. 2016Japan6
17CT/L3TPA545385Cut-off from Fearon et al.29.3%Mirkin, K. 2017USA5
15.0%Jones, K. 2015UK4
18CTVEV1.921.92Cut-off from the quartiles25.0%Park, B. 2015Korea5
19CTVFA100100Cut-off from the Japanese Society for study of Obesity35.9%Wang, S. 2018China7
65.3%Takeuchi, M. 2016Japan6
40.5%Heus, C. 2016Netherlands4
  1. Abbreviation: CT/L3 the third lumbar vertebra level in CT scan, BMI body mass index, SMI skeletal muscle index, TPA total psoas muscle area, VEV visceral fat volume, VFA visceral fat area