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Cancer Imaging

Open Access

Optimising structural imaging of neuroendocrine tumours in the molecular imaging age

  • Bimal Kumar Parameswaran1Email author,
  • Kate Moodie1 and
  • Michael S Hofman1
Cancer Imaging201414(Suppl 1):P38

Published: 9 October 2014


To provide an educational update on structural imaging appearances of neuroendocrine tumours (NET), in the age of molecular imaging.

PET/CT with Ga-68 DOTA-TATE and F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) is providing new understanding of neuroendocrine tumours including patterns and heterogeneity of disease. This is also providing new insights of structural imaging findings including CT and MRI. It is also important to be aware of the limitations of PET/CT imaging, and we outline indications where structural imaging has a high impact for patient management. These changing paradigms are translating to revised imaging protocols in our institution that are enabling personalised medicine with appropriate selection of management for an individual patient. It is also allowing us to understand the structural imaging appearances of heterogeneity within the same tumour type. A range of new targeted therapies including peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) are now available to treat patients with non-resectable metastatic NET. New patterns of response are emerging which are important to recognise, including cystic necrosis which may initially masquerade as progressive disease due to enlargement.

We have a large population of patients with neuroendocrine tumours at Peter MacCallum Cancer Institute, providing wide experience of this spectrum of imaging findings across various subtypes of NET. We present a pictorial review of our experience.

Authors’ Affiliations

Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Australia


© Parameswaran et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2014

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.