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Table 4 Prognostic Factors for Tumor Progression* after RFA

From: Long-term outcome of percutaneous radiofrequency ablation for periportal hepatocellular carcinoma: tumor recurrence or progression, survival and clinical significance

Factor All patients without tumor progression
(N = 136, %)
All patients with tumor progression (N = 97, %) Univariable Analysis Multivariable Analysis
Hazard Ratio(95%CI) P value Hazard Ratio(95%CI) P value
Child-Pugh classification 0.443
 A 127 (93.4) 86 (88.7) 1 (Reference) 0.148 1 (Reference)
 B 9 (6.6) 11 (11.3) 1.593 (0.847–2.993)   1.290 (0.673–2.473)
Etiology of tumor
 Hepatitis B virus 102 (75.0) 77 (79.4) 1.395 (0.607–3.205) 0.433 1.383 (0.574–3.330) 0.470
 Hepatitis C virus 11 (8.1) 10 (10.3) 1.888 (0.683–5.213)   2.329 (0.786–6.899) 0.127
 Non-B, non-C hepatitis 8 (5.9) 4 (4.1) 1.372 (0.385–4.881) 0.220 2.945 (0.784–11.057) 0.110
 No 15 (11.0) 6 (6.2) 1 (Reference) 0.626 1 (Reference)
AFP (ng/ml)  
  ≤ 20 88 (64.7) 52 (53.6) 1 (Reference)   1 (Reference)
 >20 and<400 37 (27.2) 26 (26.8) 1.387 (0.801–2.233) 0.179 1.720 (1.045–2.832) 0.033
  ≥ 400 11 (8.1) 19 (19.6) 3.289 (1.907–5.670) <0.001 2.955 (1.652–5.283) <0.001
 Tumor size (cm) 2.40 ± 1.03 3.13 ± 1.13 1.518 (1.276–1.806) <0.001 1.592 (1.313–1.930) <0.001
TACE before RFA
 Yes 87 (64.0) 64 (66.0) 1.056 (0.693–1.610) 0.800 0.780 (0.498–1.220) 0.277
 No 49 (36.0) 33 (34.0) 1 (Reference)   1 (Reference)
Classification of HCC
 Periportal HCC 22 (16.2) 63 (64.9) 2.470 (1.622–3.761) < 2.417 (1.559–3.745) <
 Nonperiportal HCC 114 (83.8) 34 (35.1) 1 (Reference) 0.001 1 (Reference) 0.001
  1. *Tumor progression was defined as the appearance of any enhancing tumor foci in the liver or extrahepatic metastasis during the follow-up after ablation, including LTP, IDR, vascular invasion, extrahepatic metastasis