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Table 5 Hazard ratios of multiple clinical variables on uni- and multivariate survival analysis

From: Emergency room imaging in pediatric patients with cancer: analysis of the spectrum and frequency of imaging modalities and findings in a tertiary cancer center and their relationship with survival

Variable Stratification Univariate HR (95% CI) p-value Multivariate HR (95% CI) p-value
ER imaging Positive 2.84 (1.78–4.53) <0.01 2.35 (1.44–3.83) <0.01
Negative 1 reference 1 reference
Admission Admitted 2.12 (1.34–3.30) <0.01 1.86 (1.16–2.97) <0.01
Discharged 1 reference 1 reference
Cancer type CNS tumors 1.32 (0.72–2.43) 0.38 1.45 (0.78–2.70) 0.24
Hematologic malignancies 0.28 (0.14–0.56) <0.01 0.25 (0.13–0.50) <0.01
Neuroblastoma 0.72 (0.41–1.28) 0.26 0.62 (0.35–1.11) 0.11
Retinoblastoma 0.82 (0.32–2.11) 0.69 0.90 (0.35–2.33) 0.83
Others 0.77 (0.36–1.67) 0.51 0.64 (0.29–1.44) 0.28
Bone & soft tissue tumors 1 reference* 1 reference*
Gender Male 1.10 (0.73–1.66) 0.66   
Female 1 reference   
Age (years) 11-18 0.95 (0.62–1.43) 0.79   
0-10 1 reference   
No. ER visits ≥3 2.96 (1.59–5.52) <0.01 3.08 (1.62-5.83) <0.01
2 1.97 (1.16–3.34)   1.98 (1.15–3.41) 0.01
1 1 reference 1 reference
  1. CI confidence interval, CNS central nervous system, ER emergency room, HR hazard ratio
  2. *Log-rank p-value <0.01 for analysis across all cancer types