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Table 3 Image characteristics of primary hepatic malignant vascular tumor

From: Primary hepatic malignant vascular tumors: a follow-up study of imaging characteristics and clinicopathological features

Image findings PHA EHE MHP IHE
Liver involvement
 Single 2 (18%) 0 1 (33%) 8 (62%)
 Multiple 9 (82%) 15 (100%) 2 (67%) 5 (38%)
Number of segments involved
 1 3 (27%) 1 (7%) 0 7 (54%)
 2 ~ 4 7 (64%) 5 (33%) 2 (67%) 4 (31%)
  > 5 1 (9%) 9 (60%) 1 (33%) 2 (15%)
Tumor shape
 Round 2 (18%) 5 (33%) 2 (67%) 6 (46%)
 Irregular 9 (82%) 10 (67%) 1 (33%) 7 (54%)
Margin
 Well-defined 0 0 0 6 (46%)
 Ill-defined 11 (100%) 15 (100%) 3 (100%) 7 (54%)
Capsule
 Present 2 (18%) 0 0 0
 Absent 9 (82%) 15 (100%) 3 (100%) 13 (100%)
Density
 Hypo- 11 (100%) 12 (80%) 2 (100%) 13 (100%)
 Iso- 0 3 (20%) 0 0
 Hyper- 0 0 0 0
T1WI
 Hypo- 3 (75%) 4 (100%) 2 (100%) 1 (100%)
 Iso- 0 0 0 0
 Hyper- 1 (25%) 0 0 0
Fat-suppressed T2WI
 Hypo- 0 0 0 0
 Iso- 0 0 0 0
 Hyper- 4 (100%) 4 (100%) 2 (100%) 1 (100%)
Diffused weighted imaging (DWI)
 Hypo- 1 (25%) 0 0 0
 Iso- 0 0 0 0
 Hyper- 3 (75%) 4 (100%) 2 (100%) 1 (100%)
Cystic/necrosis
 Present 5 (45%) 6 (40%) 3 (100%) 8 (62%)
 Absent 6 (55%) 9 (60%) 0 5 (38%)
Calcification
 Present 3 (27%) 2 (13%) 0 5 (38%)
 Absent 8 (73%) 13 (87%) 3 (100%) 8 (62%)
Hemorrhage
 Present 1 (9%) 0 0 0
 Absent 10 (91%) 15 (100%) 3 (100%) 13 (100%)
Morphological type
 Nodules type (d < 5 cm) 2 (18%) 0 2 (67%) 5 (38%)
 Mass type (d ≥ 5 cm) 7 (65%) 0 1 (33%) 3 (24%)
 Diffused micronodules type 2 (18%) 15 (100%) 0 5 (38%)
Enhanced pattern
 “Slow in-slow out” centripetal enhancement 7 (64%) 5 (33%) 0 0
 “Fast in-slow out” centripetal enhancement 4 (36%) 10 (67%) 3 (100%) 13 (100%)
Enhanced degree
 Hyper-vascular 8 (73%) 9 (60%) 2 (67%) 13 (100%)
 Hypo-vascular 3 (27%) 6 (40%) 1 (33%) 0
Metastases
 Lung 2 (18%) 7 (47%) 1 (33%) 0
 Spleen 1 (9%) 0 0 0
 Bone 1 (9%) 0 1 (33%) 0
 Retroperitoneal space 3 (27%) 1 (7%) 0 0
Intratumoral blood vessel 4 (37%) 10 (67%) 0 5 (38%)
Typical sign
 “Psuedocapsule sign” 0 4 (27%) 0 0
 “Halo sign” 2 (18%) 15 (100%) 3 (100%) 0
 “Lollipop sign” 0 2 (13%) 0 0
 “Capsule retraction sign” 0 2 (13%) 0 0
  1. Note: PHA Primary hepatic angiosarcoma; EHE Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma; MHP Malignant hemangiopericytoma; IHE Infantile hemangioendothelioma