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Table 3 Diagnostic performances of the radiomics model, EASL and LI-RADS criteria

From: Man or machine? Prospective comparison of the version 2018 EASL, LI-RADS criteria and a radiomics model to diagnose hepatocellular carcinoma

All lesions

EASLa

LI-RADSa

Radiomics modelb

p value

L5/5V

L4/4V/5/5 V

p value

EASL vs Radd

EASL vs L5/5V

Rad vs L5/5Vd

All nodules, n = 229

 Sen

91% (95%CI: 0.85–0.95)

86% (95%CI: 0.80–0.91)

94% (95%CI: 0.89–0.97)

0.019

73% (95%CI: 0.61–0.83)

0.006

0.531

0.076

 Spe

71% (95%CI: 0.58–0.83)

82% (95%CI: 0.70–0.91)

73% (95%CI: 0.60–0.84)

0.254

77% (95%CI: 0.55–0.92)

1.000

0.528

1.000

 PPV

91% (95%CI: 0.87–0.94)

94% (95%CI: 0.89–0.86)

92% (95%CI: 0.87–0.94)

0.999

91% (95%CI: 0.8–0.97)

1.000

1.000

1.000

 NPV

71% (95%CI: 0.60–0.80)

66% (95%CI: 0.56–0.74)

79% (95%CI: 0.67–0.87)

0.101

47% (95%CI: 0.3–0.65)

0.056

1.000

0.199

 AUC

0.811 (95%CI: 0.754–0.859)

0.841 (95%CI: 0.787–0.886)

0.834 (95%CI: 0.780–0.880)

0.745

0.810 (95%CI: 0.690–0.931)

1.000

0.761

1.000

Cirrhotic liver, n = 136

 Sen

92% (95%CI: 0.85–0.96)

86% (95%CI: 0.78–0.92)

93% (95%CI: 0.86–0.97)

0.082

70% (95%CI: 0.55–0.83)

0.007

0.408

0.112

 Spe

63% (95%CI: 0.41–0.81)

79% (95%CI: 0.58–0.93)

71% (95%CI: 0.49–0.87)

0.503

62% (95%CI: 0.32–0.86)

1.000

0.588

0.797

 PPV

92% (95%CI: 0.87–0.95)

95% (95%CI: 0.90–0.98)

94% (95%CI: 0.89–0.97)

0.999

87% (95%CI: 0.72–0.96)

1.000

1.000

1.000

 NPV

63% (95%CI: 0.45–0.77)

54% (95%CI: 0.42–0.66)

68% (95%CI: 0.51–0.81)

0.275

36% (95%CI: 0.17–0.59)

0.199

1.000

0.530

 AUC

0.772 (95%CI: 0.693–0.840)

0.824 (95%CI: 0.750–0.884)

0.818 (95%CI: 0.743–0.879)

0.849

0.715 (95%CI: 0.524–0.906)

1.000

0.612

0.897

Non-cirrhotic liver, n = 93

 Sen

89% (95%CI: 0.78–0.95)

87% (95%CI: 0.76–0.94)

95% (95%CI: 0.86–0.99)

0.668

78% (95%CI: 0.56–0.93)

0.843

1.000

1.000

 Spe

78% (95%CI: 0.60–0.91)

84% (95%CI: 0.67–0.95)

75% (95%CI: 0.57–0.89)

0.275

100% (95%CI: 0.66–1)

0.008

1.000

0.045

 PPV

89% (95%CI: 0.80–0.94)

91% (95%CI: 0.82–0.96)

88% (95%CI: 0.80–0.93)

0.994

100% (95%CI: 0.81–1)

1.000

1.000

1.000

 NPV

78% (95%CI: 0.63–0.88)

77% (95%CI: 0.63–0.87)

89% (95%CI: 0.72–0.96)

0.503

64% (95%CI: 0.35–0.87)

1.000

1.000

1.000

 AUC

0.833 95%CI: 0.742–0.903)

0.856 (95%CI: 0.768–0.920)

0.850 (95%CI: 0.761–0.916)

0.852

0.923 (95%CI: 0.829–1)

0.631

1.000

0.981

≤2 cm, n = 34

 Sen

86% (95%CI: 0.64–0.97)

76% (95%CI: 0.53–0.92)

95% (95%CI: 0.76–1)

0.067

38% (95%CI: 0.09–0.76)

0.030

1.000

0.141

 Spe

69% (95%CI: 0.39–0.91)

77% (95%CI: 0.46–0.95)

62% (95%CI: 0.32–0.86)

0.389

88% (95%CI: 0.47–1)

0.876

0.606

1.000

 PPV

82% (95%CI: 0.66–0.91)

84% (95%CI: 0.66–0.94)

80% (95%CI: 0.67–0.89)

0.992

75% (95%CI: 0.19–0.99)

1.000

1.000

1.000

 NPV

75% (95%CI: 0.50–0.90)

67% (95%CI: 0.47–0.82)

89% (95%CI: 0.53–0.98)

0.166

58% (95%CI: 0.28–0.85)

1.000

1.000

1.000

 AUC

0.775 (95%CI: 0.599–0.900)

0.766 (95%CI: 0.589–0.893)

0.784 (95%CI: 0.610–0.906)

0.788

0.859 (95%CI: 0.658–1)

1.000

1.000

1.000

>2 cm, ≤5 cm, n = 83

 Sen

85% (95%CI: 0.74–0.93)

80% (95% CI: 0.68–0.89)

95% (95% CI: 0.86–0.99)

0.011

68% (95%CI: 0.45–0.86)

0.354

1.000

0.829

 Spe

82% (95%CI: 0.60–0.95)

91% (95% CI: 0.71–0.99)

82% (95% CI: 0.60–0.95)

0.375

82% (95%CI: 0.48–0.98)

1.000

1.000

1.000

 PPV

93% (95%CI: 0.84–0.97)

96% (95%CI: 0.87–0.99)

94% (95% CI: 0.86–0.97)

0.997

88% (95%CI: 0.64–0.99)

1.000

1.000

1.000

 NPV

67% (95%CI: 0.51–0.79)

63% (95%CI: 0.50–0.74)

86% (95%CI: 0.66–0.95)

0.043

56% (95%CI: 0.30–0.80)

1.0001

1.000

1.000

 AUC

0.835 (95%CI: 0.738–0.908)

0.856 (95%CI: 0.762–0.924)

0.885 (95%CI: 0.796–0.944)

0.466

0.806 (95%CI: 0.617–0.994)

1.000

1.000

1.000

>5 cm, n = 112

 Sen

96% (95%CI: 0.89–0.99)

92% (95% CI: 0.85–0.97)

92% (95% CI: 0.85–0.97)

1.000

83% (95%CI: 0.67–0.93)

0.063

1.000

0.514

 Spe

62% (95%CI: 0.38–0.82)

76% (95% CI: 0.53–0.92)

71% (95% CI: 0.48–0.89)

0.725

67% (95%CI: 0.09–0.99)

1.000

0.933

1.000

 PPV

92% (95%CI: 0.86–0.95)

94% (95%CI: 0.89–0.97)

93% (95%CI: 0.88–0.97)

0.999

93% (95%CI: 0.81–0.99)

1.000

1.000

1.000

 NPV

76% (95%CI: 0.54–0.90)

70% (95%CI: 0.52–0.83)

68% (95%CI: 0.50–0.82)

0.920

22% (95%CI: 0.09–0.45)

1.000

1.000

1.000

 AUC

0.788 (95%CI: 0.700–0.859)

0.842 (95%CI: 0.762–0.904)

0.819 (95%CI: 0.735–0.885)

0.317

0.746 (95%CI: 0.590–0.866)

0.303

0.915

0.627

  1. Abbreviations: EASL European Association for the Study of the Liver, LI-RADS Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System, L4 LR-4, 4 V LR-TIV in the presence of LR-4 lesions, L5 LR-5, 5 V LR-TIV in the presence of LR-5 lesions, Rad radiomics model, Sen sensitivity, Spe specificity, PPV positive predictive value, NPV negative predictive value, AUC area under the receiver operating characteristic curve
  2. aDiagnostic measures were evaluated in the combined cohort comprising all patients
  3. bDiagnostic measures were evaluated in the validation cohort
  4. dComparisons were made in the validation cohort
  5. P values were corrected with the Bonferroni method
  6. ¶Comparisons were made in the combined cohort comprising all patients