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Table 1 Patient characteristics in the training and validation cohort

From: Hepatocellular carcinoma: radiomics nomogram on gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR imaging for early postoperative recurrence prediction

Variables Training cohort (n = 108) Validation cohort (n = 47) P
Clinical characteristics
 Age, mean ± SD, years 50.06 ± 11.44 51.02 ± 11.96 0.159
 Gender    0.257
  Female 22 9  
  Male 86 38  
 Recurrence rate (%) 48.15 48.94 0.474
 Child-Pugh score    0.000
  A 107 47  
  B 1 0  
 Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage    0.146
  0 8 (7.5%) 5 (10.6%)  
  A 26 (24.0%) 8 (17.0%)  
  B 49 (45.4%) 19 (40.4%)  
  C 25 (23.1%) 15 (32.0%)  
 AFP (ng/ml)    0.999
   ≤ 400 60 26  
   > 400 48 21  
 CEA (ng/ml)    0.832
   ≤ 3.4 85 40  
   > 3.4 23 7  
 CA19–9 (ng/ml)    0.967
   ≤ 22 62 29  
   > 22 46 18  
 HBV-DNA (IU/ml)    0.778
   ≤ 100 44 15  
   > 100 64 32  
 HBsAg    0.999
  Positive 92 40  
  Negative 16 7  
 ALT (IU/l)    0.988
   ≤ 50 61 27  
   > 50 47 20  
 AST (IU/l)    0.850
   ≤ 35 53 22  
   > 35 55 25  
 TBIL (μmol/l)    0.639
   ≤ 17.1 100 46  
   > 17.1 8 1  
 DBIL (μmol/l)    0.997
   ≤ 8.8 83 36  
   > 8.8 25 11  
 IBIL (μmol/l)    0.996
   ≤ 20 102 45  
   > 20 6 2  
 ALB (g/l)    0.611
   < 45 90 43  
   > 45 18 4  
 PT (s)    0.179
   < 9.6 or > 12.8 29 11  
  9.6–12.8 79 36  
 PLT (× 10^9/l)    0.991
   ≤ 100 85 38  
   > 100 23 9  
Qualitative imaging findings
 Signal on HBP images, mean ± SD 211.23 ± 82.49 182.95 ± 77.87 0.051
 Tumour size    0.267
   ≤ 5 cm 53 (49.1%) 15 (31.9%)  
   > 5 cm 55 (50.9%) 32 (68.1%)  
 Multifocality    0.816
  Present 35 (32.4%) 19 (40.4%)  
  Absent 73 (67.6%) 28 (59.6%)  
 Tumour margin    0.999
  Smooth 43 (39.8%) 19 (40.4%)  
  Non-smooth 65 (60.2%) 28 (59.6%)  
 Gross vascular invasion    0.117
  Present 37 (34.3%) 25 (53.2%)  
  Absent 71 (65.7%) 22 (46.8%)  
 Radiologic capsule    0.839
  Present 80 (74.1%) 38 (80.8%)  
  Absent 28 (25.9%) 9 (19.2%)  
 Peritumoural enhancement    0.978
  Present 51 (47.2%) 21 (44.7%)  
  Absent 55 (52.8%) 26 (55.3%)  
 Peritumoural hypointensity on HBP images    0.999
  Present 61 (56.5%) 27 (57.5%)  
  Absent 47 (43.5%) 20 (42.5%)  
  1. P values were obtained from the univariate regression analyses between the training cohort and the validation cohort
  2. AFP alpha-fetoprotein, CEA carcinoembryonic antigen, HBV-DNA hepatitis B virus DNA load, HBsAg hepatitis B surface antigen status, ALT alanine aminotransferase, AST aspartate aminotransferase, TBIL total bilirubin, DBIL direct bilirubin, IBIL indirect bilirubin, ALB albumin, PT prothrombin time, PLT platelet count, SD standard deviation